Dyslexia is a specific learning disorder that affects a person's ability to read, write and spell. It is a common learning difference that primarily affects the way individuals process language, especially in relation to decoding and recognizing written words. Dyslexia is not related to intelligence or overall cognitive abilities.
People with dyslexia often have difficulties with phonological awareness, which refers to the ability to recognize and manipulate the sounds in spoken language. This can make it challenging for individuals to connect sounds to letters and words, leading to difficulties in reading and spelling. Dyslexia can also affect other skills, such as reading comprehension, fluency, and vocabulary development. There are varying severities of dyslexia. Some people may experience mild difficulties, while others may face more significant challenges.
The exact causes of dyslexia are not fully understood, but brain imaging studies have shown differences in brain structure and activity in individuals with dyslexia, particularly in areas involved in language processing. Dyslexia is a lifelong condition, but with appropriate support, people with dyslexia can develop effective coping strategies and achieve academic and professional success.